Rafael Huseynov

The age of Azerbaijani emigration literature is measured in centuries, and this literature created due to various socio-political reasons, has a rich heritage. Furthermore, Azerbaijani emigration poetry and prose stand out from similar literature of other peoples with a number of unique features. The history of literary samples created by an Azerbaijani writer separated from his homeland, appear also to be a mirror of the political fate of the people. There are also “Literature of exile”, “Literature of prison”, “Literature of captivity” which can be classified as emigration literature of Azerbaijan, and if this heritage emerges as a literary wealth on the one hand, on the other hand, it can be considered artistic and meaningful illustrations helping in a detailed study of complex events in history and the destinies of the people. There is a specific direction in Azerbaijani emigration literature which is associated with the tragedy of violent separation in the history of the Azerbaijani people, and since other peoples do not have this kind of division, this type of emigration, this type of literature is distinguished by its uniqueness. The division of Azerbaijan as a territory and people into two parts occurred in 1813 and 1828. However, on December 12, 1945, the most significant event in the life of the Azerbaijani people took place. The national government was established in South Azerbaijan and during the year of its existence managed to do a lot for the independent development of the people. Within this framework, literature and culture also made major strides and progress in the South. Among the siginificant factors behind this was that during this period the literary forces of the South and the North were together and worked in close cooperation. Nevertheless, on December 12, 1946, exactly one year following its announcement thousands of people who had fought to found and maintain the National Government of Azerbaijan which collapsed later, were faced with tragedy. Tens of thousands of Azerbaijanis were hanged, imprisoned and exiled by the royal regime of Iran. Thousands of liberty fighters were saved from inevitable harsh punishments and death by their arrival in Soviet Azerbaijan after crossing the river of Araz within a few days. In essence, it was emigration. However, this was c, from that Azerbaijan to this Azerbaijan. Nonetheless, South Azerbaijan was part of Iran, North Azerbaijan was part of the Soviet Union. Closed borders, persecution of those immigrating to the USSR by the shah's regime in Iran, and the threat of arrest in case of their return prevented direct contact between those on this side and the ones on the other side. For 40 years – until the overthrow of the shah and a change in the system of government in Iran – literature was the main bridge connecting one side to the other. Among those who took refuge in Soviet Azerbaijan and were among the activists of the National Government of Azerbaijan in Iran, a number of outstanding writers grew up.

Keywords: Azerbaijani emigration, literature of exile, literature of prison, literature of captivity, South Azerbaijan, North Azerbaijan, emigration from homeland to homeland, Balash Azeroglu, Madina Gulgun, Sohrab Tahir