In muhammas written in Azerbaijani literature at the beginning of the 20th
century, there is an expansion of the thematic range, new searches in form. Muhammas
of the great satirist Mirza Alekber Sabir (1862-1911) begins with couplets, these
couplets complete the five-line stanzas. There are other formal innovations. Century
Muhammas were written mainly on lyrical-love, patriotic, socio-political, philosophical,
religious and other topics.
Many patriotic Muhammases praised the beauty of the native land. Some of them are
dedicated to protecting the homeland from invaders. Poets wanted to see their homeland
free, enlightened, and they wrote about it in their works at the beginning of the 20th
century. In this article, attention is drawn to the increase in the number of satirical
Muhammas compared to previous periods. At the beginning of the 20th century, political
activity increased among the population in Azerbaijan and other places of the Russian
Empire. The authorities of Russia, disturbed by this, carried out a massacre between
Armenians and Azerbaijanis. Much blood was shed, towns and villages were ravaged.
Poets of the time, such as Mir Mohsun Navvab, Mamo Bey Mamai, Ridzhai, Shaig,
Sheyda wrote in their muhammas about the true perpetrators of the incident, the need to
unite national forces, to protect their native land from invaders.
The famous poet Mohammed Hadi, in his muhammases, wrote about the need to
achieve freedom. Because only free people can achieve true progress and prosperity.
In Soviet times, several poets continued to write their poems in classical genres.
Poets such as V. Abbaszade Hammal, M.S. Ordubadi, A. Nazmi, Michael Rafili, Ali
Nazim, Suleiman Rustam, Michael Mushfig praised their native land in their
muhammas, while not forgetting to note the role of the Communist Party in the
prosperity of the country.
Quite a few poems were devoted to international events, criticism of imperialist
forces. During the Second World War, Aliaga Vahid in his Muhammas predicted the
inevitable defeat of German fascism, expressed admiration for the heroism of Soviet
Muhammas on religious themes was developing in Azerbaijani poetry, in the
second half, the end of the 20th century.

Keywords: poem, mukhammas, Sabir, satire, line