Themes of muhammases in Azerbaijan literature of the 20th century
Naila Mustafaeva

In muhammas written in Azerbaijani literature at the beginning of the 20th century, there is an expansion of the thematic range, new searches in form. Muhammas of the great satirist Mirza Alekber Sabir (1862-1911) begins with couplets, these couplets complete the five-line stanzas. There are other formal innovations. Muhammas were written mainly on lyrical-love, patriotic, sociopolitical, philosophical, religious and other topics. In a number of patriotic muhammases, the beauty of their native land are praised. Some of them are dedicated to protecting the homeland from invaders. Poets wanted to see their homeland free, enlightened, and they wrote about it in their works at the beginning of the 20th century. Attention is drawn to the increase in the number of satirical muhammases compared to previous periods. At the beginning of the 20th century, political activity increased among the population in Azerbaijan and other places of the Russian Empire. The authorities of Russia, disturbed by this, carried out a massacre between Armenians and Azerbaijanis. Much blood was shed, towns and villages were ravaged. Such poets of the time as Mir Mohsun Navvab, Mamo Bey Mamai, Ridzhai, Shaig, Sheyda wrote in their muhammases about the true perpetrators of the incident, the need to unite national forces, and to protect their native land from invaders. The famous poet Mohammed Hadi wrote in his muhammases about the need to achieve freedom. Because only free people can achieve true progress, prosperity. In Soviet times, a number of poets continued to write their poems in classical genres. Poets such as B.Abbaszade Hammal, M.S. Ordubadi, A. Nazmi, Mikayil Rafili, Ali Nazim, Suleyman Rustam, Mikayil Mushfig praised their native land in their muhammases, while not forgetting to note the role of the Communist Party in the prosperity of the country. Quite a few poems were devoted to international events, criticism of imperialist forces. During the Second World War, Aliaga Vahid in his muhammases predicted the inevitable defeat of German fascism, expressed admiration for the heroism of Soviet soldiers. In the second half, the end of the 20th century, the number of muhammases on religious themes is growing in Azerbaijani poetry.

Keywords: poem, mukhammas, Sabir, satire, line